Saturday, June 20, 2009

Device & Procedure-Associated Conditions

Modern healthcare employs many types of invasive devices to help patients recover. Such devices bypass patients' natural defenses against invading micro-organisms. Therefore, use of these devices has been linked to infections of the lung, bloodstream, and urinary tract. Similarly, surgical treatment may place a patient at risk of acquiring infection at the surgical site. Guidelines for preventing infections associated with devices and procedures are available.

Patient Safety

Instrument reprocessing errors and other infection control breaches in health care settings can present unique challenges for health care professionals and public health officials.

* Developing a broader approach to management of infection control breaches in health care settings
Experiences with health departments and health care facilities suggest that questions surrounding instrument reprocessing errors and other infection control breaches are becoming increasingly common. We describe an approach to management of these incidents that focuses on risk of bloodborne pathogen transmission and the role of public health and other stakeholders to inform patient notification and testing decisions. (Am J Infect Control 2008;36:685-90.)

Bloodborne Pathogens in Healthcare Settings

Healthcare personnel are at risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Exposures occur through needlesticks or cuts from other sharp instruments contaminated with an infected patient's blood or through contact of the eye, nose, mouth, or skin with a patient's blood.

Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)

Healthcare-associated infections are infections that patients acquire during the course of receiving treatment for other conditions within a healthcare setting. Healthcare-associated infections are one of the top ten leading causes of death in the United States. As the nation’s health protection agency, CDC is committed to helping all Americans receive the best and safest care when they are treated at a hospital or other healthcare facility.

Guidelines for Protecting Patients (by date)

isted here are the primary, CDC published, guidelines and recommendations for the prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections. Guidelines for more specific topics and diseases may be found elsewhere on the CDC site by that specific topic or disease.

Guidelines for Protecting Patients (by date)

* Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008
PDF (1.80 MB / 158 pages
* Guideline for Isolation Precautions 2007
* Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organism 2006 PDF (233 KB, 74 page)
* Preventing Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia, 2003
* Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities, 2003
* Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings, 2002
* Prevention of Intravascular Device-Related Infections, 2002
* Prevention of Surgical Site Infections, 1999
* Prevention of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections, 1981

Industry (Biologics)

The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) has established a Manufacturers Assistance and Technical Training Branch to provide assistance and training to industry, including large and small manufacturers and trade associations, and to respond to requests for information regarding CBER policies and procedures. Manufacturers assistance is available in numerous areas including: clinical investigator information, adverse event reporting procedures, electronic submissions guidance and requirements, and information on how to submit an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) to administer an investigational product to humans.